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从斯坦福的船坞,揭开招生丑闻更多内幕_纽约时报中英文版_纽约时报中英文网

更新时间:2019/7/18 20:28:47 来源: 作者:佚名

Caught Up in the College Admissions Scandal: Stanford’s Boathouse
从斯坦福的船坞,揭开招生丑闻更多内幕_纽约时报中英文版_纽约时报中英文网

REDWOOD CITY, Calif. — A Stanford sailor arrived at the university’s gleaming boathouse to clean out her locker at the end of the school year. The doors would not open.

加州雷德伍德城——学年结束时,斯坦福大学一名帆船运动员走进发着微光的船坞,准备清理她的储物柜。但是打不开门。

“Did they change the locks again?” she said with an air of exasperation。

“他们是不是又换锁了?”她愤慨地说。

It was a reasonable question. In March, when the sailing coach John Vandemoer was fired after being snared in a nationwide admissions scandal, the locks were changed at the Arrillaga Family Rowing and Sailing Center. In April, they were changed again, after the men’s rowing coach Craig Amerkhanian was mysteriously fired — late in the season, weeks before his planned retirement.

这个疑问并非没来由。3月份,当帆船教练约翰·范德默尔(John Vandemoer)在卷入一场全国性的招生丑闻后被开除,阿里利亚加家族赛艇和帆船中心(Arrillaga Family Rowing and Sailing Center)换了锁。4月份,男子赛艇教练克莱格·阿默克哈尼安(Craig Amerkhanian)不晓为何被解雇后,锁又换了一次,当时正值赛季后半段,他还有几周就计划退休。

Stanford’s boating troubles stem from the work of William Singer, the private college consultant who collected millions of dollars in payments from wealthy parents and paid college coaches and athletic administrators to designate non-athletes as recruits for admissions purposes at elite universities. In some cases, the college coaches pocketed the money. In others, Singer, who goes by Rick, made donations to the athletic programs.

斯坦福的赛艇问题始于威廉·辛格(William Singer),这名私立大学顾问从富人家长手中收了数百万美元钱款,然后付钱给大学教练和运动治理人员,让他们指定非运动员作为精英大学的招收对象。有些钱进了大学教练的腰包。还有一些则被人称里克(Rick)的辛格捐给运动项目。

Stanford is investigating the scope of the wrongdoing. It has hired the law firm Simpson Thacher & Bartlett to review how its athletes are recruited and how athletics-related gifts are accepted.

斯坦福正在调查这种不法行为的涉案范畴。斯坦福已聘请盛信律师事务所(Simpson Thacher & Bartlett)就本校运动员及体育特长生的录取和招收方式予以审查。

The university has reviewed email accounts, phone records and computers of coaches and athletic department staff. It has acknowledged that Singer contacted other coaches at Stanford — Amerkhanian among them. At least one parent indicted in the scandal, a Canadian businessman, also contacted Amerkhanian to discuss a recruiting spot for his son. Stanford maintains it has not unearthed any other cases of admissions fraud, however.

大学方面已审查了教练和体育部教职工的邮箱账户、手机通话记录和运算机。校方承认,辛格联络过斯坦福的其他教练——阿默克哈尼安就在其中。至少一名在丑闻中被起诉的家长,一名加拿大商人,也联系过阿默克哈尼安,讨论他儿子的录取名额事宜。但斯坦福仍旧表示尚未发觉其他招生欺诈案件。

“Stanford is strengthening its internal controls and processes in an effort to prevent something like this from happening again,” E。J。 Miranda, a university spokesman, said in a statement。

“斯坦福在加强内部控制和流程治理,以防此类事件再度发生,”大学发言人E·J·米兰达(E。J。 Miranda)在声明中称。

That Stanford is in this position is startling。 It has a $26。5 billion endowment and prides itself on achieving athletic excellence without sacrificing integrity。 But the turmoil in these two modestly financed athletic programs, along with another pair of dismissals, has resulted in what has long been seen as the ultimate sin at Stanford — sullying the university’s reputation。

斯坦福陷入这样的处境本就令人惊愕。它有265亿美元的捐赠基金,而且,不用以诚信为代价就可以取得优异的运动成绩,一直是该校的骄傲。但是,两个资金不算特别充裕的运动项目,加上另两起解职事件,已导致一个在斯坦福一直被视为终极罪行的结果——弄脏这所大学的名声。

“You didn’t do anything that could tarnish Stanford’s name,” Jay Kehoe, a former head sailing coach, said. “That was definitely the culture.”

“你不能做任何可能有损斯坦福名声的事情,”前首席帆船教练杰伊·基霍(Jay Kehoe)说。“这绝对是这里的文化。”

When Vandemoer, wearing a navy suit and holding his wife’s hand, walked into a Boston courthouse for a sentencing hearing last month, the lawyers on both sides sparred over the extent of the damage done to Stanford’s reputation.

上月,当范德默尔身着深蓝色西装、挽着妻子的手步入波士顿法庭,参加量刑听证会时,双方律师就斯坦福名誉受损的程度展开了辩论。

Since the scheme was revealed in March, federal prosecutors have brought criminal charges against more than 50 people, including coaches, Hollywood actresses and prominent figures from the worlds of law and finance.

自3月份这场骗局被披露以来,联邦检察官已对50多人提起刑事控告,包括教练、好莱坞女演员以及法律界和金融界晓名人士。

Vandemoer, who pleaded to conspiracy to commit racketeering, was the first to be sentenced: six months of home confinement for receiving more than $600,000 from Singer in exchange for designating applicants as sailing recruits.

范德默尔承认犯有共谋欺诈罪,被第一判刑:因收受辛格60多万美元,以指定申请者为帆船项目招募对象作为交换而获判6个月软禁。

Vandemoer, who put the money from Singer into a fund that supports Stanford’s sailing program, lost his job and his Stanford housing. He now lives at the vacation home of a Stanford benefactor and coaches privately, at a club run by his wife, just a few hundred yards from the Stanford boathouse.

范德默尔把得自辛格的钱投给了支持斯坦福帆船项目的一项基金,他失去了工作和斯坦福大学的住房。他如今待在一名斯坦福捐助者的度假屋里,并在妻子经营的一家俱乐部当私人教练,俱乐部距斯坦福大学的船坞仅几百码之遥。

“Stanford is a place that I love,” Vandemoer told reporters last month in front of the courthouse. “I have brought a cloud over Stanford, and for that I’m deeply ashamed.”

“斯坦福是我所热爱的地方,”范德默尔上月在法院前对记者称。“我给斯坦福蒙上了一片阴影,我对此深感惭愧。”

The sentencing capped a turbulent few months at Stanford. In March, a week before the admissions scandal broke, James Shirvell, an admissions officer, was fired after the police charged him with the attempted murder of his girlfriend while under the influence of LSD. Stanford’s president, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, and provost, Persis Drell, vowed to review the applications Shirvell judged “to assure his assessments were sound.”

这场判决结束了困扰斯坦福几个月的一桩麻烦。3月份,招生丑闻曝出前一周,招生官员詹姆斯·舍维尔(James Shirvell)被解雇,警方此前控告他在迷幻剂的作用下谋杀女友未遂。斯坦福大学校长马克·泰西耶-拉维涅(Marc Tessier-Lavigne)和教务长佩尔西·德雷尔(Persis Drell)誓言要对舍维尔判定的申请进行审查,“以确保他的评估妥当无虞”。

Then, in April, Stanford abruptly fired two longtime coaches: Shannon Turley, who oversaw strength and conditioning for all varsity sports, and Amerkhanian, who had planned to retire in August, after his 19th season.

此后在4月份,斯坦福突然间开除了两名长期任职的教练:负责所有校队运动力量与训练的香农·特利(Shannon Turley)和计划于8月份他的第19个赛季结束后退休的阿默克哈尼安。

In an interview, Turley, who had been praised for reducing injuries, especially among football players, declined to comment on his firing。 But he said that “for any errors of judgment that I may have made at Stanford, I can sleep well at night knowing that I did everything in the best interest of the student-athletes。”

特利因减少了运动员受伤而受来颂扬,特别是在橄榄球运动员中。在一次摘访中,他拒绝就遭解雇一事发表评论。但他说,“尽管我在斯坦福可能犯了判定错误,但我晚上可以安稳入睡,因为我晓道我所做的一切都是为了学生运动员的最大利益。”

Stanford takes great pride in its athletics program, which for the 25th consecutive year won the N.C.A.A.’s Directors’ Cup, the award for overall excellence. The university is also notoriously tight-lipped about personnel matters. Few people were aware of why any of the coaches was dismissed.

斯坦福大学对自己的竞技体育项目引以为傲,它已连续25年获得NCAA的“董事杯”(Directors’Cup),即颁发给整体表现优异者的奖项。该校在人事问题上也是出了名的守口如瓶。几乎没有人晓道这些教练被解雇的原因。

“Stanford athletics is a really cold, calculating, bureaucratic organization,” said the Olympian Silas Stafford, a rower who graduated in 2008. Noting how Amerkhanian’s firing was publicly described as a retirement, Stafford said: “I would call it cowardice. If there’s really dirt, let it see the sunlight. If there’s not, let him go out in style.”

“斯坦福竞技体育是一个非常冷酷、精于算计的官僚机构,”2008年毕业的赛艇运动员赛拉斯·斯塔福德(Silas Stafford)说。斯塔福德指出,解雇阿默克哈尼安的对外说法是退休:“我认为这是懦弱的。如果真的有肮脏的行径,就应该暴露在阳光之下。如果没有,那让他体面地离开。”
When Stanford was informed last week that multiple people had told The New York Times that Amerkhanian had been dismissed, it acknowledged he was given a choice — retire or be fired — for violating employee behavior policies. Stanford said the violations came to light this year, but refused to specify if they were spurred by the federal investigation or if they were gleaned from the scrubbing of computers and phones.

上周,斯坦福大学被告晓,许多人告诉《纽约时报》阿默克哈尼安是被解雇的。斯坦福大学承认,阿默克哈尼安因违反员工行为政策而被迫挑选——要么退休,要么解雇。斯坦福大学表示,这些违规行为是今年曝光的,但拒绝具体说明证据是来自联邦调查,还是在清理电脑和手机时收集的。

Amerkhanian, 62, declined to comment.

现年62岁的阿默克哈尼安拒绝置评。

If sailing requires mental and physical dexterity, reading the wind and the opponent, and moving decisively on a small boat, then Vandemoer, 41, was a fitting avatar: short, serious, hardworking and quiet, with dark sunglasses and a Red Sox cap typically pulled tight over his brow out on the water.

如果说帆船项目需要精神和身体的敏锐、读懂风向和对手,以及在小船上果断地移动,那么41岁的范德默尔就是这项运动的最佳化身:他身材矮小、严肃、勤劳、寂静,戴着深色太阳镜和红袜队(Red Sox)的帽子,在出海时总是让帽檐紧紧贴着眉毛。

Conversely, rowing requires long levers, brute strength and fierce determination to push through searing pain on the water. If experience is crucial in a sailboat, rowers can be made — and over the last 15 years, few have cranked out Olympians like Amerkhanian.

相反,赛艇需要高大的身材、强悍的力量和坚定的决心,才能在水面上耐过剧烈的痛苦。在帆船运动中,自身体会至关复要,而赛艇运动员是可以培养的。在过去的15年里,几乎没有人能像阿默克哈尼安那样培养奥运选手。

But some former rowers and Stanford coaches said Amerkhanian could also be territorial, abrasive and a bully。

但一些前赛艇手和斯坦福大学教练表示,阿默克哈尼安也可以是个恶霸,具有很强的领地意识,非常粗暴。

Stanford suspended him for three months and stripped him of his title as director of rowing during the 2010-11 school year, after a joint Pac-10 and Stanford investigation found violations of school policies, conference rules and abuse of authority, according to what the then-athletic director Bob Bowlsby told rowers at the time。 Bowlsby, now the commissioner of the Big 12 Conference, declined to comment other than to say the discipline wasn’t connected to admissions。

在2010来2011学年,当时的体育总监鲍勃·鲍尔斯比(Bob Bowlsby)告诉赛艇手们,一个太平洋10校(Pac-10)和斯坦福联合调查发觉阿默克哈尼安违反学校规则、联会规则并滥用权力,斯坦福将他停职三个月,剥夺了他的赛艇教练头衔。鲍尔斯比现在是12大联盟(Big 12 Conference)的委员,他拒绝发表评论,只是说这项决定与招生无关。

“He was always a square peg in a round hole in the bureaucracy of Stanford,” said Stafford, who credited Amerkhanian with molding him into an Olympian.

“在斯坦福大学的官僚体系中,他一直是个格格不入的人,”斯塔福德评判阿默克哈尼安说。

A problem Amerkhanian and Vandemoer had in common was the cost of competing against colleges in the Northeast。 In the 2018-19 school year, the sailing team made 15 trips east of the Mississippi River。

阿默克哈尼安和范德默尔面临一个共同的问题,那就是与东北部大学竞争的成本。在2018-19学年,帆船队在密西西比河以东地区有15次出行。

According to Department of Education data on operating expenses, Stanford spent $182,000 on its sailing program in 2017 — more than any school other than Boston College, and nearly double what Yale and Georgetown spent. But Vandemoer said in an interview before his sentencing that his budget did not include equipment; his biggest fund-raising need was to replace a fleet of 18 sailboats — at a cost of about $120,000 — every five to eight years.

根据教育部关于运营费用的数据,斯坦福大学2017年在帆船项目上花费了18.2万美元,超过了除波士顿学院以外的任何一所学校,几乎是耶鲁大学和乔治敦大学的两倍。但范德默尔在宣判前的问讯中表示,他的预算不包括设备;他最大的筹资需求是每隔5来8年更换一支由18艘帆船组成的船队,成本约为12万美元。

The rowing teams don’t travel as frequently — or as far — but they have a major expense that the sailors do not。 They must transport their boats, which can run up to $80,000 for a carbon fiber shell, to races。

赛艇队不像帆船队那样经常旅行,也不用走得那么远,但他们有一项帆船手没有的复大开支。他们必须把船运送来比赛现场,一个碳纤维船体的运费可能高达8万美元。

Stanford spent about $386,000 on its rowing programs in 2017 — down from a peak of $557,000。 Other top rowing programs like Yale and Cal each spent around $675,000 in 2017, and the University of Washington spent $1。25 million。

2017年,斯坦福大学在赛艇项目上花费了约38.6万美元——是从55.7万美元的峰值降下来的。2017年,耶鲁大学和加州大学等顶尖赛艇队各自花费约67.5万美元,华盛顿大学花费125万美元。

Though Stanford said its coaches do not have fund-raising benchmarks, the external pressures to finance these programs were touched on in letters supporting Vandemoer to the judge who sentenced him。 A parent of two Stanford sailors noted that the team stayed at his house in Annapolis, Md。, to save money。

尽管斯坦福大学表示,他们的教练没有筹款基准,但在写给法官的一封对范德默尔表示支持的信中,还是提来了资助这些项目的外部压力。斯坦福大学两名帆船运动员的父母表示,为了省钱,运动队曾经住在他位于马里兰州安纳波利斯的家中。

In addition, Joseph W. McCoy, a Stanford alumnus and avid sailor, wrote: “I am not at all surprised with how such low-profile and poorly funded sports like sailing, soccer, rowing, etc., became such easy targets in this rather ingenious criminal operation that created this mess.”

此外,斯坦福校友、狂热的帆船手约瑟夫·W·麦考伊(Joseph W. McCoy)写道:“在这场相当精巧的犯罪行动中,帆船、足球、赛艇等不受关注、资金匮乏的运动很容易成为目标,我对此一点也不感来惊讶。”

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