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35名员工被逼自杀,他们的老板会进监狱吗?_纽约时报中英文版_纽约时报中英文网

更新时间:2019/7/11 16:45:05 来源: 作者:佚名

35 Employees Committed Suicide. Will Their Bosses Go to Jail?
35名员工被逼自杀,他们的老板会进监狱吗?_纽约时报中英文版_纽约时报中英文网

PARIS — In their blue blazers and tight haircuts, the aging men look uncomfortable in the courtroom dock。 And for good reason: they are accused of harassing employees so relentlessly that workers ended up killing themselves。

巴黎——这些身穿蓝色上装、头发剪得很短的上了年纪的男子,在法庭的被告席上显得很不悠闲。这不难理解:他们被指控如此连续强烈地骚扰员工,以至于导致了员工们自杀。

The men — all former top executives at France’s giant telecom company — wanted to downsize the business by thousands of workers a decade ago. But they couldn’t fire most of them. The workers were state employees — employees for life — and therefore protected.

这些男子都是法国巨大的电信公司的前高管。十年前,他们想通过裁掉几千名员工的方式来精简公司。但他们不能解雇其中的大部分人。这些工人是国家雇员,而且是终身雇员,工作受来保护。

So the executives resolved to make life so unbearable that the workers would leave, prosecutors say. Instead, at least 35 employees — workers’ advocates say nearly double that number — committed suicide, feeling trapped, betrayed and despairing of ever finding new work in France’s immobile labor market.

所以,这些高管们决定让员工的生活变得难以忍耐,变相地赶他们离开,检察官说。结果却是,至少有35名员工自杀了,他们感来没有出路、感来受了欺诈,对在法国没有流动性的劳动力市场找来新工作感来失望。倡导工人权益的人士说,实际数字几乎比这个高一倍。

Today the former top executives of France Télécom — once the national phone company, and now one of the nation’s biggest private enterprises, Orange — are on trial for “moral harassment.” It is the first time that French bosses, caught in the vise of France’s strict labor protections, have been prosecuted for systemic harassment that led to worker deaths.

如今,这些法国电信(France Télécom)前高管们因“道德骚扰”受审。法国电信曾是一家国有电话公司,现在叫Orange,是法国最大的私营企业之一。这是受法国严格的劳动保护法牵制的法国老板们,首次因系统性骚扰、导致工人死亡而被起诉。

The trial has riveted a country deeply conflicted about capitalism and corporate culture, and may help answer a question that haunts the French as they fitfully modernize their economy: How far can a company go to streamline, shed debt and make money?

这次法庭审理吸引了这个对资本主义和pk10投注技巧有深度抵触情绪的国家,或许有助于回答在断断续续的经济现代化进程中困扰法国人的一个问题:企业在精简机构、摆脱债务和盈利上能走多远?

If convicted, the ex-executives face a year in jail and a $16,800 fine. But even before the trial wraps up on July 12, with a verdict sometime later, it has become a landmark in the country’s often hostile relations between labor and management.

如果这些前高管被判有罪,他们将面临一年监禁和相当于1。68万美元的罚款。但即使在庭审于7月12日结束(并在不久后作出判决)之前,此案已成为法国经常敌对的劳资关系上的一个里程碑。

As President Emmanuel Macron has sought to make France more business-friendly, he has run into a buzz saw of strikes and faced a revolt among Yellow Vest protesters who accuse him of being the president of the rich。 While many workers complain they struggle to make ends meet, employers say a system of generous social benefits and worker protections makes hiring onerous and stifles job creation。

在法国总统埃马纽埃尔·马克龙(Emmanuel Macron)觅求让法国变得对企业更友好的时候,他遭遇了罢工的热潮,并面临着黄背心抗议者的反抗,他们指责他是富人的总统。尽管许多工人埋怨他们难以保持生计,但雇主们说,法国大方的社会福利和工人保护制度让招聘变得繁琐,扼杀了就业机会的创造。

The trial has become a searing demonstration of those lingering tensions。

此案已经成为这些挥之不去的紧张关系的强烈出现。

France Télécom was caught flat-footed by the digital revolution, as fixed-line subscribers dropped away by the thousands. The state ordered the company to go private in 2003, and by 2005, it was over $50 billion in debt.

法国电信被数字革命打了个措手不及,固定电话用户大幅下降。2003年,政府下令公司私有化,来2005年时,公司的债务已超过500亿美元。

Company executives thought they needed to get rid of 22,000 workers out of 130,000 — a necessity contested by the prosecution — to ensure survival。

公司高管们认为,为确保公司的生存,他们需要在13万名员工中裁员2.2万。检方对这种做法的必要性提出了质疑。

“They were stuck, cornered,” said Michel Ledoux, one of the plaintiffs’ lawyers. “The only possibility was to make them leave, one way or another.”

“他们被困住了,走投无路,”原告律师之一米歇尔·勒杜(Michel Ledoux)说。“唯一的可能是让他们离开,无论用什么手段。”

Weeks of wrenching testimony about despairing employees who hanged themselves, immolated themselves, or threw themselves out of windows, under trains and off bridges and highway overpasses, have suggested that the former executives went very far in “pushing the company into the new century,” as corporate strategy dictated.

有关失望的员工上吊、自焚,或跳窗、卧轨,或从大桥、高速公路立交桥上跳下来的让人心如刀绞的证词已表明,这些前高管们所做的远远超出了“推动公司进入新世纪”,如公司战略所要求的那样。

The executives include Didier Lombard, the former chief executive officer; Louis-Pierre Wenès, his No。 2; Olivier Barberot, the former head of human resources; and four others。

这些高管包括前首席执行官迪迪埃·隆巴尔(Didier Lombard)、他的二把手路易-皮埃尔·维纳(Louis-Pierre Wenès)、前人事部总经理奥利维埃·巴柏罗(Olivier Barberot),以及其他四人。

A grim universe of underemployment, marginalization, miscasting and systematic harassment was established at the huge company, according to testimony at the trial。

根据庭审证词,这家巨大的公司制造了让工人没有足够工作可做、边缘化,给工人分配不适当的工作,以及系统性骚扰等令人不快的工作环境。

The executives “sought the destabilization of the workers,” prosecutor Francoise Benezech said in her summing up on Friday。

检察官弗朗索瓦·贝内泽什(Francoise Benezech)在周五的总结陈述中说,这些高管“觅求使工人不稳固”。

“People who had worked outside their whole career were suddenly put in front of a computer,” said Frédérique Guillon, a worker advocate who testified at the trial, in an interview. “There were people whose work was simply taken away from them.”

“那些在整个职业生涯都在野外工作的人突然被分配来运算机前工作,”在庭审中作证的劳工维权人士弗雷德里克·居永(Frederique Guillon)在接受摘访时说。“有些人干脆就没有工作可做。”

Among those victims, the youngest was Nicolas Grenouville, 28, who was wearing a company T-shirt when he put an internet cable around his neck and hanged himself in a garage, Mr. Ledoux told the court this week.

受害者中最年轻的是28岁的尼古拉·格朗努维耶(Nicolas Grenouville),他在车库里用一根网线上吊自杀时,穿着公司的T恤衫,勒杜本周在法庭上说。

“I can’t stand this job anymore, and France Télécom couldn’t care less,” Mr. Grenouville wrote shortly before his death in August 2009. “All they care about is money.”

“我再也不能忍耐这份工作了,法国电信什么都不在乎,”格朗努维耶在2009年8月去世前不久写道。“他们只关心钱。”

An introspective technician used to working alone on the phone lines, praised for his scrupulousness, Mr. Grenouville was suddenly pitched into a sales job dealing with customers. He couldn’t stand it. “They threw him out into the arena without a speck of training,” Mr. Ledoux told the court.

格郎努维耶是一位内向的技术员,习惯于一个人做电话线路维修工作,他的一丝不苟受来了人们的称赞。他突然被分配销售部门与客户打交道。他受不了了。“他们没有提供一点训练就把他抛来竞技场上,”勒杜在法庭上说。

The day before his suicide he had worked a 12-hour day with one 30-minute break. “Little Nicolas took this violence right smack in the face,” Mr. Ledoux said.

在自杀的前一天,他上了12个小时的班,只休息了30分钟。“这种暴行对小尼古拉来说是当头一棒,”勒杜说。

Camille Bodivit, 48, had been a planner at the company when suddenly his job description began to shift. He threw himself off a bridge in Brittany in 2009. “Work was everything for him,” his partner’s lawyer, Juliette Mendès-Ribeiro, told the court Tuesday.

48岁的卡米耶·博迪维(Camille Bodivit)原本是公司的计划师,但突然间,他的工作职责开始发生变化。2009年,他在布列塔尼的一座大桥上跳桥自杀。“工作是他的一切,”他伴侣的律师瑞里耶特·芒德-里贝罗(Juliette Mendes-Ribeiro)周二在法庭上说。

“You killed my father — why?” asked Noémie Louvradoux last week, turning to the defendants, in one of the trial’s most widely reported moments. Her father, Rémy, set himself on fire in 2011 in front of a France Télécom office near Bordeaux, in despair over successive marginal reassignments.

“你们杀了我父亲——为什么?”诺埃米耶·卢夫拉杜(Noemie Louvradoux)上周在法庭上转身面对被告问道,那是此次庭审被最广泛报道的时刻之一。2011年,她的父亲雷米(Rémy)在波尔多附近的法国电信办公楼前自焚,原因是他对接连不断地分配给他微不足道的工作感来失望。

In their defense, the former executives have cited the intense pressure of a competitive and changing marketplace.

在为自己辩护时,这些前高管们提来了竞争强烈、不断变化的市场带来的巨大压力。

“The company was going under and it didn’t even know it,” Mr. Lombard, the ex-chief executive, testified. “We could have gone about it much more gently if we hadn’t had the competition banging on our door.”

“公司正在走向倒闭,却毫无所晓,”前首席执行官隆巴尔作证说。“如果不是竞争对手来敲我们大门的话,我们本可以做得更温顺些。”

Unfortunately for Mr. Lombard, he was recorded saying in 2007 that he would reach the quota of layoffs “one way or another, by the window or by the door.” The window is what a number of the employees chose.

但对隆巴尔不幸的是,他2007年说的话被记录了下来。他说,他会“想方设法,要么从窗户要么从门”完成裁员配额。窗户是很多员工的挑选。

“This isn’t going to be lacework here,” Mr. Barberot said in 2007. “We’re going to put people in front of life’s realities.”

“这不是绘画绣花,”巴柏罗在2007年说。“我们要让员工面对生活的现实。”

To the mounting signs of distress management turned a deaf ear, testimony at the trial suggested.

庭审证词显示,对员工日益增多的痛苦迹象,治理层视而不见。

Noëlle Burgi, a sociologist who worked with the employees during the suicide wave and testified at the trial, said in an interview that it was “a process of humiliation.”

社会学家诺埃勒·比尔吉(Noelle Burgi)曾在公司出现自杀潮期间做过员工的工作,并在法庭上作了证。她在接受摘访时说,那是一个“使人丧失尊严的过程”。

“You were put in an office, underground,” Ms. Burgi said. “There was one guy who was literally kicked out of his office. He didn’t understand.”

“你被分配来一间地下办公室,”比尔吉说。“有一个人真的被踢出了他的办公室。他想不通。”

The suicides and testimony made clear that France’s chronically high unemployment rate had left many of the workers feeling especially vulnerable.

自杀潮和法庭上的证词清楚地表明,法国长期居高不下的失业率让许多工人感来特别易受伤害。

“Before, when there was full employment, if you were unhappy at work, you could tell your boss to go to hell,” Ms. Guillon said.

“以前有充分的就业,如果你对工作不满意,你可以对你的老板说,老子不干了,”居永说。

But those conditions haven’t existed for years in France, where the labor market is stagnant and immobile by American standards, and workers have little culture of moving cross-country for a new job。

但这种情况在法国已经多年不存在了。以美国的标准来看,法国的劳动力市场死气沉沉,缺乏流动性,工人们也没有跨地域觅找新工作的文化。

It is clear that these France Télécom employees had signed on expecting to finish their careers at the company。 “Eighty percent were there to stay until the end of their professional life,” Pascale Abdessamad, a France Télécom worker who also testified, said in an interview。

很明显,这些法国电信的员工是打算在公司里待一辈子的。“80%的人会一直待在那里,直来他们的职业生涯结束,”曾在法庭作证的法国电信工人帕斯卡勒·阿布德萨马德(Pascale Abdessamad)在接受摘访时说。

Most of the employees were deeply dedicated to their work, testimony indicated. A company like France Télécom, iconic in French life for years, was an apparent lifelong security blanket.

证词显示,大多数员工都非常敬业。像法国电信这样长期以来在法国生活中具有偶像地位的公司,显然曾是他们终生的安全保证。

“These companies were considered family,” Mr. Ledoux told the court. To be mistreated by one is extremely transgressive,” he said.

“工人以这些公司为家,”勒杜在法庭上说。“被自家人虐待是极为不道德的,”他说。

France’s executive caste, normally mutually supportive, has been notably silent about the executives on trial, while France’s workers have watch the proceedings with special glee。

法国的高管阶层通常相互支持,但这次对受审的高管一直保持着明显的沉默,而法国工人们则特别幸灾乐祸地观看着庭审过程。

The courtroom is filled with current and former company employees who look on with disapproval at the silent row of jacketed defendants。

法庭上坐满了公司的现任和前任员工,他们以不赞成的表情看着这排穿着正装、一言不发的被告。

“Even if the penalties are low, it will be a nice stain on their jackets,” said Noel Rich, a France Télécom employee who had come to observe the trial.

“即使处罚很轻,那也会在他们的正装上留下一个大污点,”前来旁听庭审的法国电信员工诺埃尔·里什(Noel Rich)说。

“These are guys who are used to hanging out with ministers,” Mr。 Rich added。 “There’s been no words of compassion for the little guy。”

“这些人习惯了与部长们来来往往,”里什补充说,“没有对小人物表达过同情之别。”

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