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更新时间:2019/6/27 20:26:51 来源: 作者:佚名

6 Places in Europe Offering Shelter From the Crowds
人少景美,去欧洲还能这么玩_纽约时报中英文版_纽约时报中英文网

GREECE

希腊

Instead of Santorini, Tinos

与其圣托里尼,不如蒂诺斯岛

Santorini has been struggling with overtourism for years, a victim of its own success after the island, and the Greek government, sought to lure tourists back following an eight-year financial crisis. Now this idyllic destination has reached a saturation point.

圣托里尼多年来一直受来过度旅游问题的困扰。连续8年的经济危机后,希腊政府试图将游客吸引回来,于是这片岛屿成了自身成功的受害者。如今,这个原本悠闲的目的地已达来饱和点。

A more authentic Greece — the one that Santorini offered before the crowds — can be found in the Cycladic haven of Tinos. With its own enchanting sunsets and rugged charm, this under-the-radar gem is an alluring alternative.

而在基克拉泽斯(Cyclades)的世外桃源蒂诺斯岛(Tinos),你能找来一个纯正的希腊,就像还没有人满为患的圣托里尼那样。这个低调奇妙的珍宝兼有迷人的落日和粗旷之美,是个诱人的替代选项。

A two-hour ferry ride from Santorini and a half-hour from Mykonos, Tinos is the laid-back sister to Greece’s high-watt destinations。 Beckoning to be explored, Tinos is dotted with villages, hidden inland to protect them from pirates during a bygone age, and an unusual network of 18th-century dovecotes perched on hillsides and above ravines。 The Panagia Evangelistria church in the capital, Chora, built around what is said to be a miraculous icon, is a destination for pilgrims around the world。

从圣托里尼乘2小时或从米科诺斯岛(Mykonos)乘半小时渡轮即可抵达蒂诺斯岛,在希腊众多备受瞩目的旅游目的地中,它是后来居上的闲逸之地。蒂诺斯岛等待着你来探索,这里星罗棋布的村庄隐藏在内陆,那是往昔年代为防海盗侵袭而造成的。还有一片不觅常的18世纪鸽舍,耸立在山间与峡谷之上。首府乔拉(Chora)的帕纳基亚福音教堂(Panagia Evangelistria)是环绕一件据称显了神迹的圣像所建,是世界各地朝拜者的目的地。

THE NETHERLANDS

荷兰

Instead of Amsterdam, Delft and The Hague

与其阿姆斯特丹,不如代尔夫特和海牙

In 2017 Amsterdam was visited by 19 million people, two million more than live in the entire country. The city has a particular problem with tourists on a tight budget — many arriving via low-cost airlines from Britain, France, Germany and beyond, and staying at Airbnbs (which the city is trying to curb), in hostels or in their cars and, spending much of their time partying in the red-light district. There the crowds get so dense that on weekend summer nights rescue workers often can’t get to people who fall sick or faint.

2017年,阿姆斯特丹接待了1900万游客,比整个国家的人口还多200万。低预算游客给这座城市带来了特别严复的问题——很多人乘坐廉航从英国、法国、德国及其他地方抵达,住在Airbnb(政府打算限制它的服务)、青年旅店或自己的车里,然后大部分时间在红灯区狂欢。那里太过拥挤,以至于夏日周末晚间有人生病或晕倒时,救援人员都无法赶来患者身边。

Last year, the city reminded its visitors how to behave (and threatened steep fines to those who ignored the warnings). In March it started banning tours of the red-light district, and since last October, the tourism board has stopped promoting Amsterdam and is encouraging visitors to visit other Dutch destinations.

去年,阿姆斯特丹曾提醒游客要注意行为举止(并曾威逼对无视警告者施以复罚)。3月份,它开始禁止红灯区的旅游路线,自去年10月以来,旅游局已停止推广阿姆斯特丹,并正在鼓励游客访问荷兰其他旅游目的地。

Among those destinations are two that can be easily combined: Delft and, about 10 miles away, The Hague, the seat of Dutch government (as well as the royal court). Both are ideal for visitors looking for great museums, canals, wild North Sea beaches — and no crowds.

这些目的地中有两处可以方便地合在一起:代尔夫特和10英里(约合16公里)开外的荷兰政府(及王室)所在地海牙。两地都是探觅优质博物馆、运河和未开发的北海海滩的理想挑选,而且没有拥挤的人群。

SPAIN

西班牙

Instead of Barcelona, Valencia

与其巴塞罗那,不如巴伦西亚

For a less frenetic dose of cosmopolitan Mediterranean charm, head 220 miles down the coast to Valencia, Spain’s third-largest city, with 800,000 residents and barely 2 million visitors per year。 Founded as a retirement community for Roman soldiers, it has many of the same attributes as Barcelona — both were ancient walled cities — with a sprawling, mazelike center filled with Gothic, Romanesque, Renaissance and Baroque architecture。 All styles were combined in Valencia’s Cathedral, built between the 13th and 18th centuries; architectural purists should not miss the 15th-century Silk Exchange, a Unesco World Heritage Site and a stunning reminder of the city’s mercantile importance。

要想领略不那么疯狂的世界主义地中海魅力,可以沿海岸南下220英里前往西班牙第三大城市巴伦西亚,这里有80万居民,每年仅200万游客。巴伦西亚起初是作为退伍罗马士兵的生活区而建,有许多和巴塞罗那相同的特点——都有古老的城墙环绕,也都有庞大的迷宫般的中心城区,其中遍布哥特式、罗马式、文艺复兴时期和巴洛克式建筑。所有这些风格都融合在建于13至18世纪的巴伦西亚大教堂;专为觅访建筑而来的游客可别错过15世纪的丝绸交易所,这是一处联合国教科文组织世界遗产,也极好地再现了这座城市在商贸上的复要地位。

Wrapped around the center is a ribbon of parks in what was once the Turia River, which was diverted in the 1950s after severe flooding. Sitting at one end of the park is the City of the Arts and the Sciences, with its extraterrestrial-looking opera house, science museum and aquarium (Europe’s largest), all designed by Santiago Calatrava.

环绕着中心城区的是一片公园,图里亚河曾穿越其中,但在20世纪50年代的一场严复洪灾后改道了。坐落在公园一端的是艺术科学城(City of the Arts and the Sciences),其中有外观像是来自外太空的歌剧院、科学博物馆和水族馆(欧洲最大),均由圣地亚哥·卡拉特拉瓦(Santiago Calatrava)设计。

A region known as Spain’s vegetable garden and the birthplace of paella — try lunch at one of the paella palaces like La Marcelina along the Malvarossa beach — will have a lot on the menu. For a serious meal, go to Vicente Patiño’s restaurant Saiti, or the two-Michelin-star Ricard Camarena Restaurant in an old pump factory.

该地区以西班牙菜园和海鲜饭的发源地著称——不妨去马尔瓦洛萨海滩的La Marcelina这样的西班牙海鲜饭餐厅食顿午餐——菜单上将有很丰富的挑选。要食正经的大餐,可以去维森特·帕提诺(Vicente Patiño)的Saiti餐厅,或者去旧泵厂改造的米其林两星的Ricard Camarena餐厅。

For 21st-century Valencians, beaches are not a battlefield but a way of life to be savored. The port built for the America’s Cup races in 2007 and 2009, and the Las Arenas Resort and Spa led an upscale revival that continues today.

对于21世纪的巴伦西亚人,海滩不是战场,而是一种品味生活方式。这个港口为2007年和2009年的美洲杯帆船赛而建,拉斯阿雷纳斯温泉疗养度假村(Las Arenas Resort and Spa)则引领了今天仍在连续的高尚生活复兴。

THE ADRIATIC

亚得里亚海

Instead of Dubrovnik, Kotor

与其杜布罗夫尼克,不如科托尔

Some 60 miles apart, Dubrovnik, Croatia, and Kotor, Montenegro, are both striking walled cities on the Adriatic that were once ruled by Venice. But while the former is battling overtourism, the latter is still fighting for attention.

克罗地亚杜布罗夫尼克和黑山的科托尔相距约60英里,两者都是亚得里亚海上曾被威尼斯统治过的城市,也都为城墙环绕。然而,虽然前者正为过度旅游所困,后者却仍在争取关注。

Dubrovnik has long been Croatia’s coastal star, luring travelers before “Game of Thrones” made it a “set-jetter” destination for fans eager to visit the locations of the HBO hit. But Hollywood’s spotlight, compounded by the cruise industry’s expansion over the last decade, has driven record numbers of visitors to Dubrovnik, threatening to overrun the walled old town, where about 1,000 residents have been overwhelmed by up to ten times that many visitors daily in high season. In 2016, Unesco warnedDubrovnik that its World Heritage status was at risk unless something was done to ease the pressure.

杜布罗夫尼克长期以来一直是克罗地亚的滨海之星,在《权力的游戏》(Game of Thrones)来来前便吸引着众多游客,此后对于期望访问这部HBO热剧拍照地点的粉丝们,它成为“跟着影视剧旅游”的目的地。但好莱坞的聚光灯,加上过去十年来邮轮业的扩张,使得杜布罗夫尼克的游客人数达来创纪录的数量,险些给城墙环绕的老城区造成破坏。旺季每天多达本地人口十倍的游客数量,令那里约1000名居民不堪复负。2016年,联合国教科文组织警告杜布罗夫尼克,除非摘取措施缓解压力,否则其世界遗产地位恐将不保。

Something has been done, namely the Respect the City campaign that now limits cruise passengers, who account for about 60 percent of the 1.2 million annual visitors, to 4,000 each morning and another 4,000 in the afternoon.

措施已经有了,那就是“尊复这座城”(Respect the City)行动,这项行动如今对邮轮乘客进行了限制,将人数限定在每天上、下午各4000人。邮轮乘客占每年来访该地120万游客的约60%。

If that still sounds like too many, consider visiting Kotor. At the end of the fjord-like Bay of Kotor and ringed with mountains, Kotor echoes Dubrovnik in its old quarter, a fortress built between the 12th and 14th centuries and filled with churches, cafes and homes with terra-cotta rooftops. In 2018, Kotor received nearly 140,000 tourists, a fraction of Dubrovnik’s.

如果这个人数听上去还是太多,那就考虑一下去科托尔吧。科托尔位于类似峡湾的科托尔湾的尽头,群山环绕。在老城区方面,科托尔与杜布罗夫尼克相似,这里有一个建于12世纪至14世纪之间的堡垒,满是教堂、咖啡馆和带有赤土陶屋顶的住宅。2018年,科托尔接待了近14万游客,只占杜布罗夫尼克游客数量的一个零头。

CZECH REPUBLIC

捷克共和国

Instead of Prague, Olomouc

与其布拉格,不如奥洛穆茨

Few capitals in Central and Eastern Europe offer anything like Prague’s combination of picture-perfect architecture and vibrant night life。 Throughout Old Town, many bars stay open until either very late or very early, depending on your point of view, with decadent subterranean clubs like Le Valmont keeping the party going until sunrise。

中东欧少有国家的首都能提供像布拉格这样的组合:完美建筑和活跃的夜生活。在老城区各处,有着营业来很晚或者很早——取决于你怎么看——的酒吧,还有像Le Valmont这种颓靡的地下夜店可以通宵达旦地狂欢。

The City of a Hundred Spires is certainly still worth a visit — just prepare yourself for the possibility of shoulder-to-shoulder crowds on the busiest days at sites like St. Vitus Cathedral and Charles Bridge.

“千塔之城”当然仍旧值得前往——只是要做好准备,旺季在像圣维塔大教堂和查理大桥这样的地方会有人挤人的时候。

But if you do feel overwhelmed, consider a trip to Olomouc, about two hours away in the country’s eastern region of Moravia. Like Prague, Olomouc has a spot on the Unesco World Heritage list, breathtaking Gothic and Baroque buildings and a famous astronomical clock. Unlike Prague, it still has relatively few tourists. Home to 100,000 permanent residents and 21,000 university students, Olomouc offers a small-scale taste of Prague’s history and architecture, as well as plenty of college-town fun and great places to eat and drink.

但如果你无法应付这么多人,考虑一下前往奥洛穆茨吧。那里距离布拉格大约两小时,位于捷克东部的摩拉维亚地区。像布拉格一样,奥洛穆茨也在联合国教科文组织的世界遗产名录上,那里有着令人惊艳的哥特和巴洛克风格建筑,还有一个著名的天文钟。与布拉格不同的是,这里的游客较少。奥洛穆茨有10万永久居民,以及2.1万大学生,在这里可以小小地领略一番布拉格的历史和建筑风貌,这里还有不少的大学城的乐子以及享用美食美酒的好去处。

ITALY

意大利

Instead of Florence, Lucca

与其佛罗伦萨,不如卢卡

For a glimpse of Renaissance glory with a bit more breathing room, look about 50 miles west to the city of Lucca.

要一瞥文艺复兴时期的光辉,又想有一点喘息空间,往西边约50英里处看,那是卢卡城。

Situated beside the Serchio River in northwestern Tuscany, Lucca is perhaps best known for its well-preserved city walls. Forming a perfect ring around the center, the Renaissance-era fortification was later transformed into a public park: a leafy two-and-a-half-mile elevated allée with views across green ramparts and terra-cotta rooftops. Once a prosperous hub of the silk trade, this handsome town has served as a backdrop in films and television shows, from “The Portrait of a Lady,” to a memorable “Top Gear” segment, among many others.

坐落于托斯卡纳西北部的卢卡位于塞尔基奥河畔,这里最为著名的是保存完好的城墙。文艺复兴时期的堡垒绕着中心环成了一个完美的圈,这个堡垒后来被改造成了一个公园:一条2.5英里长、郁郁葱葱的高架大道,可以看来绿色城墙和赤土陶屋顶的美景。这个美丽的小镇曾经是一个繁荣的丝绸贸易中心,也曾在不少影视剧中充当背景,从《淑女本色》(The Portrait of a Lady)来《英国疯狂汽车秀》(Top Gear)的一个令人难忘的片段等等。

But beneath the camera-ready facade are charms both cultural and culinary。

但在适合拍照的表面之下,这里充满了文化和美食带来的魅力。

On the menu, you’ll find eggy fresh pasta with rabbit ragù — or better yet, summer truffles — and raisin-studded cakes known as buccellato。 (One food writer declared the local cuisine the best in Tuscany。)

在菜单上,你会看来新鲜制作的鸡蛋意大利面配兔肉酱——还有更妙的夏松露——以及被称作“buccellato”的葡萄干馅蛋糕(有一位美食作者曾宣布当地美食是托斯卡纳最棒的)。

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